Researching The Origin of Currency, A Canadian Perspective

How Does Money Define Us?

by Robbie Chernish

Research Question Abstract: How do currencies define regional boundaries, identities, and ultimately your quality of life?

How has the invention of cryptocurrency forced nations to go back to the drawing board on defining national currencies, and their implications for governance?

How far back can we go to understand when and how human civilization began?

We have seen many depictions of early human history from teachings in the Holy Bible, and by statues and moments uncovered through archaeological research, but one of the most important factors in determining a civilization is it’s use of currency.

To better understand how civilization emerged from a primitive hunting and gathering society into a formalized network of trade under an agreed central authority takes some time to develop. Often conflict for competing resources involved the necessity to create standards of trade so goods procured in one region could be traded for more diverse goods from other regions. For example, you may have fish in one region (by the sea or river) and barley or fruit (on the plains or inland), which may be used as barter for other goods.


This particular study refers to the early people often known as the indigenous americans, indians, native americans, eskimos, eurasians, nords, anunakki, athabaskans, or eagle-people. One thing we do know about these people is that they have little written history, and a result many of the myths and cultural doctrines have been lost over the generations.

After researching the local Athabasca archives, my research has yielded that there remains very little written history documenting the arts, crafts, and cultural beliefs of the civilizations that existed prior to the arrival of the white man.

Recent discoveries of 100s of stones found by Chernish are shedding new light on the subject, and an increased determination for getting answers on territorial currency use in Alberta. Research has shown rocks marked with the symbol of a modified pickaxe using eagle heads with beaks appear to be the dominant symbol of the region covering over 450 kilometers (and possibly much more) across a watershed believed to have been influenced by a glacial movement or flood that caused a mass extinction of a civilized group of highly experienced hunters, gathers, and traders.

The traders were also thought to be highly advanced in making boats as well as carving and sculpting stone and rocks into tools and currencies used for trade. The pick-axe eagle head can be seen across 50 collected stones in a matter of 6 months of hunting.


The central authority has yet to be determined, as well as the age of this civilization, and as well as what wiped them out.




Nomadic Peoples and Their Trade Routes:

Prevailing Hypothesis Based on Stone Scatter Patterns Across 450 Kilometre Stretch Between Slave Lake to North Saskatchewan River: Glacier Movement Caused by Pole Shift

A pole shift would have caused the water and arctic to create a “falling away from the old north pole, believed to be more easterly located, which would have also changed the water flow.

Based on current models of water flow, it is suspected that our current water flow is 50 feet lower to 150 lower than the height of the water level at the time when the stones were being created.


A stone smelter pit was found 50 feet above the North Saskatchewan River under a slab of gravel and bedrock, suggesting that this area would have been the zone where the people were living. The bedrock may have been a form of old style concrete and possibly a road or pathway for the people.


These roads and paved paths have not been well-documented in Canada by researchers because their existence has been hard to find. New leading research by Chernish suggests that the people were possibly one of the greatest and most civilized people on the planet for their time period.

Comparing their artworks and sculpture to the Maya, Inca, Aztecs, Egyptians, and Eurasians, the Canadian Eskimos seem to have the most extensive usage of a standardized currency. To see such standardization across such a large distance of land implies a large number of people (large civilization), or very organized trade route (suggesting advanced water or ice navigation / expert navy traders), very sophisticated methods of water travel (ferry, shuttle, water taxi), and a large quantity of food sources, gold, and precious stones. These peoples may also have been connected through the Northern Passage, where vikings and explorers may have migrated from the Siberian Tundra, and what is now Asia.


After examination of the area, it became clear that their were stones marked by different tribes using insignia from natives on the west coast known as the haida-gwaii. These people often used the elongated beak of the eagle in a different way than the eagle-head pickaxe.

In Campbell River, B.C. one can easily see the presentation of the eagle carved into large totem poles.

The eagle-head style can be seen on a few of the rocks in the sample, suggesting that competing themes were emerging as to what should be the proper totem to display, and for what purpose. Did different symbols imply a different type of business? For example, could an eagle head carved one way be the currency for a boat ride, and the eagle head carved the other way be for food or weapons? Or, did the differences represent regional representations, similar to how today’s modern borders use specific nationally branded currencies?


Could the currencies of these early nomads have been an influence on the development of early american currency? Could the symbol of the eagle on the early american currency been a throughput from trade by early settlers between north american indians and settlers on the northern passage?

Who was the central authority of these early stone workers?    How did they possess the knowledge to manufacture, cut, and exhibit such sophisticated mastery of stone manipulation that would be almost impossible to recreate using modern technology?


Who were they? And, were they a slave race to a higher power being used to cut stone in search of gold? If so, where is the gold?


Based on the pickaxe insignia, and rocks found in the area, there is a very well-developed understanding of color use to accentuate the yellow of eagle-beaks. Many of the stones are angled in such way that if applied to a “gold trap” – certain areas would “catch gold.”

The Quest for Gold

People have spent billions of dollars in researching how and where to find gold, and the best methods of harvesting it. Our research on gold discovery and harvesting suggests that these early stone workers may have been some of the earliest gold miners in the world, using rock pickaxes to mine stone and carving riffle style patterns and gold catches into solid rock suggests a high level of knowledge of water trapping gold.


There is some research on the underwater gold catches near Kitimat, b.c., where archaeologists have mapped a 600 year old gold dam that lies 450 metres under the sea. This is one of the few examples of early gold catching by a civilization. Could the people trapping gold in Alberta have been descendants from the Kitimat tribe? How did their understanding of creating dams and managing water flow dictate their trade routes, trading supplies, and sophistication of water navigation.

Photo of the trees in the area under investigation


Using geological evidence found in the area under question, as well as vegetation and fisheries populations, it is clear both the Alberta stoneworkers and the B.C, coastal indians used waterways to gather fish as their main food supply.

In B.C. salmon was the staple food, and in the  Slave Lake region, whitefish, suckers, and other fish types carved into stone have been identified as important resources. The water was channeled using dikes and dams in zig-zag pattern that followed from the Athabasca River confluence with the Lesser Slave River near modern day Hamlet of Smith and extending south to North Saskatchewan River possibly through the Tawatinaw Valley Basin and eastward to Lac La Biche and Cold Lake.


This theory would likely hold true based on elevation tests of the upper athabasca region near fawcett lake heading west to Calling Lake and Flat Lake suggesting a large open water area.

Given that Slave Lake and Lake Athabasca are some of the largest lakes in the world, many areas of our modern region were likely underwater. A glacial movement, or some other change catalyst such as a meteor strike blowing a dam or geologic movement displacing large amounts of water seems to be the most reasonable explanation for how the stones appear to be scattered across the region.


More work needs to be done on surveying regions in the midwest to cross-reference and correlate the changes, similarities, and variations in the symbols and styles of stone cuts on currencies to properly determine trade-route boundaries, and standardization of symbols.


Symbol sampling counts need to be conducted across a higher number of areas to inform central authority and governance in trade, boundaries, gold production relative to stone coins, numbers of coins compared to totems, variations in totem style, number of totems in the sample, number of items worked, and much more.


Research to date has been conducted over a 7-year longitudinal study done by Chernish, where arrowheads were found in a central channel thought to be an indigenous fish ladder trap. Research in the area was put on hiatus to compare and study developments and patterns in temple sites in Mexico. After 2 years of extensive architectural temple research in Mexico and South America, Chernish returned to analyze currency use of the Alberta and B.C. indigenous groups since there was very little evidence of currency proof or stone coin use in Mexican and South and Central American sites.

Arrowhead and bird-shaped stone


Changing Dynamics of Currency


Interviews with residents in the area – David James, a resident near the Island Lake area said he found dried pemmican wrapped in raw-hide dating back to 1850. Sending the material away for analysis in 1965, he is still waiting to hear back on his bountiful find. There is little evidence or research conducted on the early indigenous use of currency in the Alberta and B.C region, and more research needs to be done because of the increasing threat to national currencies being put forth because of bitcoin and altcoins, as seen by the rise of digital currency in larger metro areas like Japan and Korea.

Bitcoins and altcoins are digital currencies that started becoming mainstream in 2019 when Facebook announced they would use a digital currency. Digital currencies have grown in value from zero to over 250 billion dollars at June, 2019. Their evolution begins in 2014, making it one of the fastest and most disruptive inventions since money itself.

To understand how to understand how transitioning the use of one currency in one region can impact the many dynamics of a region, we have to understand how currencies are adopted and used by regions. Prior to most national currencies being in existence, there is little record about currency use, positing this research as a very important aspect for legitimizing boundary and territory for early Alberta and B.C. indigenous groups.

The problem to date has been finding an indigenous group, or another group to step up and illustrate the connection to early currency use by their family, tribe, group, or other centralized civilization. Some of the earliest use in Canada and America comes from the dutch, english, french, and british, and asian influence from the eskimos and ice people in the far north.

More engagement talks need to be done with indigenous people to research the use of early coins or currencies and their symbols to help understand tribal connections, land usage and trade routes, and cultural pathways using symbolic interaction.

The approach to the study blends traditional archaological practices and merges them with modern sci-fi realism and competing fields of knowledge. Some of the concepts explored through the archaological pieces found at site XXXX include the concept of alien encounters, annunakki tribal influence, viking navy, and concepts relating to a “stargate” and other extra-terrestrial motifs.


Other Details:


  • Based on some of the sculptures and paintings on rock, there is a clear connection to boats, boating, and navigating waterways. This may imply that the area may have served as a trading port for early nomads.
  • Current research dates the concept of money to approx. 4000 B.C., but the Alberta research area suggests higher concentrations of stone coins than found anywhere else in the world.
  • Due to large volumes of matching insignia, sculptures, symbols, and relics found, it is clear that a central authority was leading a large-scale currency manufacturing operation. Approximately 50 of 100 stones showed clear evidence of workmanship, with approximately 10 of these being high quality, expert crafted and cut rock pieces in the shape of ravens, eagles, and possibly aliens and dinosaurs.
  • In this study we bring to light the findings of years of research in this area, highlighting some top finds, and questions to where, why, how this civilization was able to create 1000s of artifacts and disappear without a trace.
  • Geologic Details: The eastern portion of the area shows 8 inches of mixed top-soil, then a 2 inch white clay layer, then intermixed seams of white, rusty, and orange sands. The sands mix with smaller fine-grained gravels approximately 250 metres from the eastern border, and continue to thicken with larger rocks and gravels for another 200 metres before becoming interspersed with a mix of mud and clay.
  • The area has produced an extremely large number of finely chiseled and cut eagle heads. The craftsmen appear to have a taste for bright and colorful stones, with most pieces often being cut from quartz and red-granite quartz veins. They appear to follow are variety of 5 standard rock cuts, including an elongated raven beak, an open-mouth raven beak, an eagle beak, and more detailed 3D sculptures showing multiple cut-layered sections (roll of eagles).
  • It is clear that the design of the higher quality pieces indicate that the craftsmen would have possibly seen old coins, or perhaps that the development of old coins would have evolved from these early stone pieces:






Geologic Sampling

From the mass of gravels that were sampled, many showed the variations of cuts, across a large number of rock sizes, and from the many designs, it appears that there were competing symbols and brands on the stones throughout history. However, after going through 1000s of pieces of gravel, it soon became clear that themes emerged from the symbols.

Almost all of the stones are cut in eagle beak patterns, with larger stones showing marked lines of further eagle head patterns waiting to be cut. The pieces are cut to accentuate the most precious areas of the stones, which suggests that higher quality stones had higher value.

Some of the stones are carved with faces of bears, dinosaur-looking animals, deer, but most often represent eagles or ravens.


Staining, Inking, Painting

There are two prevalent image brands on many of the stones that have been inked or branded which suggest that the people who were working on these stones, were also marking ownership on them.


Finding the right size of money

Many of the smallest stones are in a circular fashion with the eagle beak rounding along the outer edge of the coin. Smaller quartz pieces cut in this way are translucent and quite remarkable to look at.

The early pioneers may have learned to trade with the natives in the area and perhaps it was the natives who introduced these early settlers to the concept of money. While more research needs to be done on the origins of where and how the civilization that created these stones disappeared remains a top question.

  • Who were they?
  • Where did they go?
  • Were they humans?
  • How are there so many artifacts in the area, but no skeletons or remains?



The Quest For Gold

The people who created the stones were also aware of gold, and were probably working through all the rocks to find it. Many of the eagle heads resemble our modern-day mining pick. With the long sharp point at the end being great for digging into rock, the eagle-head design may have been a way to trade gold for gems. Some of the larger and more intricate pieces may even be maps of rivers and tributaries in the area.

Based on a number of stones that had the beak area colored bright yellow or gold may have a double meaning beyond the natural yellow beak of the eagle, and extending into the knowledge of where and how to trap gold. Those familiar with how gold falls out in a river or creek would understand that the shapes that many of these rocks have make them excellent for catching gold.

Test pans of the white sand and rusty sand did yield some iron, and some small flour gold was found. More testing needs to be done closer to the main gravel seam and in new regions to help understand rock and geologic concentrations to see if there is a link between rock type and frequency of rocks cut, and the amount of gold in the area.

Do the higher concentration of rock cuts at certain sites indicate higher concentrations of gold density?


Understanding the relationship between gold and these early gold miners, as well as the link to the geologic rock types, and their symbols may yield more clues as to where they lived, where they stored their gold, what happened to it, and where it came from so that mountains bearing the same type of stone may be located and tested.


An early coin, possibly one of the earliest coins ever created was found my Mr. Chernish on his mineral claim, where old civilizations are believed to have created the standard for modern currency. If proven, Mr. Chernish’s research may yield new insights on the origins of currrency, it’s usage, and new insights on land ownership and land rights.


Robert Chernish

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